The Java Networking API (
java.net) provides the interfaces/classes
for the following functions:
The goal of this document is to provide a high-level overview of the
java.net package provides. For details about interfaces,
classes, or factories, see the networking
API. For basic networking concepts, see Trail:
Custom Networking in the Java Tutorial.
java.net provides the following addressing-related classes:
For IP addressing, three classes are provided:
InetAddress represents an IP address,
which is either a 32- or 128-bit unsigned number used by IP, the lower-level
protocol on which protocols like TCP and UDP are built. To represent 32-bit
Inet4Address is provided. (An IPv4 address has the
n is an integer;
18.104.22.168). It is a subclass of
To represent 128-bit IPv6 addresses,
Inet6Address is provided.
It is also a subclass of
For socket addressing, two classes are provided:
SocketAddress is an
socket address, independent of a specific protocol. It is intended for subclassing
for a specific protocol.
InetSocketAddress below is an example.
InetSocketAddress is a subclass of
it represents an IP socket address. It can include an IP address (e.g.,
and port (e.g.,
80); a hostname (e.g.,
and port (e.g.,
1000); or port only (e.g.,
In the latter case, a wildcard IP address is assumed.
These classes are related to making normal TCP connections:
For simple connections between a client and a server,
Socket are all that you will probably need.
ServerSocket represents the socket on a server that waits and
listens for requests for service from a client.
the endpoints for communication between a server and a client. When a server
gets a request for service, it creates a
Socket for communication
with the client and continues to listen for other requests on the
The client also creates a
Socket for communication with the server.
The sequence is shown below:
Once the connection is established,
getOutputSteam() may be used in communication between the sockets
The following are related to sending and receiving datagram packets via UDP.
DatagramPacket represents a datagram packet. Datagram packets
are used for connectionless delivery and normally include destination address
and port information.
DatagramSocket is a socket used for sending
and receiving datagram packets over a network via UDP. A
is sent from a
DatagramSocket by calling the
DatagramPacket as the
dp) is use for receiving a
class may be used for sending/receiving a
DatagramPacket to a mulitcast
group. It is a subclass of
DatagramSocket that adds functionality
These classes are related to locating or identifying network resources:
The most commonly used classes are
URI represents a Uniform Resource Identifier for a resource; it
is an identifier for a resource but not necessarily a locator for that resource.
URL represents a Uniform Resource Locator for a resource. URLs are a
subset of URIs, though the class
URL is not a subclass of the
class. In short, a URL tells how to access the resource, while a URI may or
may not. The Uniform Resource Name (
URN) is another subset of
No Java class exists for it.
URLConnection is the abstract superclass of all classes that represent
a connection between an application and a network resource identified by a
URL and hence a protocol,
returns an instance of the appropriate implementation of
for the protocol. (The protocol is known from the
URL.) The instance
provides the means
open the connection and access the
HttpURLConnection is the most commonly used implementation of
URLConnection. It is for
http protocol, the protocol
used for accessing content on web servers. In the above diagram, if the access
protocol for the
http, then an instance of
HttpURLConnection would be returned by the
Security includes authentication- and permissions-related classes. Authentication
relates to user authentication and involves username and password checking.
Authentication of a user may be required in a number of situations, such as
when a user tries to access a URL. Permissions relate to what actions may be
performed; e.g., unless the
NetPermission object "
exists, then invoking the method
a) will cause a security exception.
Some proxies and origin servers require authentication
information, using authentication schemes such as
BASIC and DIGEST. For instance, when connecting
with http via a proxy and the proxy requires authentication,
we call the
Authenticator class to obtain
usernames, passwords, and other items needed to
authenticate. The following classes relate to
In addition to methods for user authentication, the
also has methods for querying about the authentication
being requested (see
It is typically subclassed and an instance of the subclass
is registered with the system by calling
setDefault(Authenticator a). (Note that if
there is a security manager, it checks to see that the
security policy permits the
Then, when the system requires authentication, it will
call a method such as
PasswordAuthentication is simply a data holder for a user name
and a password.
SocketPermission consists of a host, with optional port range,
and a set of actions that may be performed on that host
resolve. It includes
methods to determine if one
SocketPermission is equal to another
or implies another
may be included in a
PermissionCollection for easy checking if
a permission exists.
NetPermission is a class for various named network permissions.
Currently there are three:
setDefaultAuthenticator, as mentioned
NetPermission may be included in a
for easy checking if a permission exists.
For more information about permissions, see http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/guide/security/permissions.html.